Sunday, April 30, 2006

Everyone has a Story

Time for a Change

A little over two years ago now, I heard about some problems the county had had with trying to put technology to work. I checked into it and found that they did indeed have equipment that had been purchased but never hooked up (e.g. large format scanner for architectural drawings), machines that had never been properly networked together, servers still in need of setup, desktop systems to set up and install. I had some time on my hands so I asked to help out.

Now in the interest of full disclosure, I could have used some full time work back then and I would have loved to have had a job close to home, but I was up front with everybody about that. To my thinking this was a win for everybody. They got a computer systems professional to help out for free, and I got a chance to show what I could do and learn their systems in advance, which I figured would stand me in good stead if they were to decide they needed more permanent help.

During that time, the county had retained a professional consultant (and very pricy by the hour) to advise them as to what they should be doing to improve their technology infrastructure and how to run a business-like information system. He was also, for that time functioning as the de facto IT manager, so I took my tasking from him for about six weeks.

I proceeded to install equipment, configure e-mail addresses, troubleshoot networking problems and all the usual work such things require. I even started working on a county web site – you can still see it ( ) - and actually made a good start on the parks segment ( ). None of it has been touched since I was asked to leave. Well, all during this time the commissioners discussed and dithered, delayed and debated, with the clock ticking the whole time, the consultant’s bill rising and decisions sorely needing to be made.

I am tempted to elaborate on this story with Vera Benning’s hi-jinks in response to having a volunteer in the house – but that is another story. This one is all about poor management and wasted money.

Given the long history of county funds wasted on failed IT projects, some dating back a decade or more, one would think that someone would have learned a lesson along the way.

Before it was all over, $90K was spent on a consultant who was ignored and then attacked for charging them for his time. He recommended that the county needed a process like any business for dealing with Information Technology and a knowledgeable person who could understand and champion the county’s technical requirements while keeping vendors from raiding the treasury. Under Benning’s influence that initiative died and, as a result of this inaction, the county auditor was permitted to spend an additional sum of over $100K upgrading an obsolete IBM AS400 system that wasn't new in the 80's. Mind you, the system was out of capacity and something needed to be done, but with a timely decision the system could have been replaced with something ten times better for a tenth the cost in hardware and the whole project could probably have been done for half the over all cost of the upgrade -- hardware, software, conversion and all.

I finally had the chance to bring this up with Ms.Benning at the Manchester “Meet the Candidate” night. If you believe her, the Auditor gets to decide what system he wants to use – but that’s like saying they would approve of providing refurbished Model A Fords for the Sheriff for patrol just because he likes them. She also tried to lay it off on Council, they have the purse strings and so they just HAD to waste the money on an antique computer. Somehow, I think Council might have gone along with spending less if given the option. The problem is nobody down there really has any professional knowledge about computers or could put together a better proposal, so how could Council know they had better options?

Some have tried to label the consultant a crook, but who is really to blame if they allowed his time spent to get out of hand, especially if they weren’t going to follow his advise. They just weren’t paying attention… again. They were too busy bickering. In the end, the truth is, they just weren’t competent to deal with computer issues and didn’t have the wisdom to take the steps necessary to provide the county with the kind of information infrastructure the county needs.

All the others who were a part of that debacle are gone now – all but one – I leave it to the voters to handle the one most responsible for getting nothing for money spent, Vera Benning.

Steve Walker
Manchester Township

Other Examples of related waste and inefficiency:

The various departments still have to find and hunt through a giant computer print out of the county accounts, a stack of paper about 3 inches thick, in order to know what their budgets are. This is a dinosaur of the 70’s – in the 21st century this information could and should be viewable online!

Zoning, Building and Health, who all share a role in the permit process, don’t share info as they easily could with computerized workflow, so citizens still play hide and seek with all the bits of the permitting process.

The Recorder still pays a $5 per image royalty fee to an outside vendor for every deed image scanned when it should cost pennies at most.

The county is hosting official information on an offsite web server (, I couldn’t say how much they pay for the service, but they do have their own server that would cost them nothing more.

I am sure there are more if anybody cared to look into it…

Saturday, April 29, 2006

Obviously No Fan of Ms. Benning

...but the job history I hadn't known before...

I've been trying to find a reason to vote for Vera Benning.

First I looked for qualifications to be a County Commissioner.

Let's see - does being a receptionist at H&R Block make the list?
I don't think so.

How about selling garden furniture at Consolidated Grain & Barge?
Not that.

How about managing an apartment complex for retired folks?
We may all get there someday but that doesn't really do it for me either.

Well maybe being in real estate sales is the ticket. We all want someone who will allow more subdivisions! Don't we???

Maybe being a stalwart in the Republican Party should be a qualification.
Knowing how to be a politician and telling people what you think they want to hear might work for some people - but sorry - not for me.

Perhaps I should forget about job history and look for character.

In the not too distant past a committee was formed, at the request of the then commissioners, to do a study and make recommendations on what could be done to make the best use of the County Farm. Vera attended a number of those meetings and promised to support whatever the committee recommended. (Did I mention that she was running for County Commissioner then too?)

Well, she was elected and immediately reneged on that promise.

So much for character!

You know what??

I can't find one single reason to vote for her so I'm just going to stop trying.

Anne Observer

Thursday, April 27, 2006


The Manchester Civic Association has organized a"Meet the Candidates" night for Thursday, April 27th at 7:30pm at the Manchester firehouse near "the store" on SR 48 in Manchester.

This is an opportunity to meet Vera Benning, the sitting District 3 County
Commissioner, and her opponent for the May 2 primary, Ralph Thompson.
Please plan on attending this meeting to voice your concerns to the candidates.

The primary election is open to all voters in the county. Even though commissioners run in a district, ALL voters vote for them. Republican ballots have the contested local races on them- commissioner and sheriff. (Dave Lusby vs. Linda Jordan Estes) For the Bright/HVL area there is also a district council race that is contested. (Liz Morris vs. Craig Lysne)

You must bring a picture ID (such as a driver's license) with you when you vote this year - it's a new law.

Wednesday, April 26, 2006

Interested in Fresh Natural Produce?

Interested in Fresh Natural Produce?


TO: Newspaper Editors
FR: Sister Claire Whalen, Secretary
Food and Growers Association of the Laughery Valley and its Environs (FGA)
RE: Public Information session, May 9, 2006

DATE: April 26, 2006

Leaders in the Northern Laughery Valley are being invited to attend a panel presentation, “Stimulating the Rural Economy,” to become informed about initiatives to create a Local Food Source in the Laughery Valley. The event will be held May 9, 2006, 6:30-7:45pm
at the Batesville Memorial Building, Council Chambers.

Guests will learn about the first project created by the Food and Growers Association, namely FarmFreshCSA, which is currently taking subscriptions for its program offering fresh, naturally grown produce for twenty weeks, beginning June 7, 2006. They will also learn about possibilities for locally grown produce to be purchased by schools for their lunch programs to improve the nutrition levels of school children. They will see how these local efforts mirror such projects in the state and nation.

The Food and Growers Association of the Laughery Valley and its Environs (FGA) is hosting this event.

Kathy Cooley, RD, dietitian at the Hansen Center in Batesville and president of FGA, will address the connection between eating safe, healthy food with personal health as well as with preserving family farms and caring for the environment.

Joining her on the panel will be the following professionals:

Robert White, State Director for Rural Development, USDA, Indianapolis
John Keeton, Field Coordinator, Purdue’s Ways to Grow and Beyond, Vevay
Richard Adrian, President of Jennings County Growers, North Vernon
Paul Anderson, President, Ripley County Indiana Farm Bureau, Moores Hill
Terry Stephenson, Coordinator, Historic Hoosier Hills, Versailles

Claire Whalen, OSF, Secretary of FGA, Batesville, will serve as moderator

For additional information, call Kathy Cooley at 812-933-3708 or Christine Bruns at 812-934-6590.

Tuesday, April 25, 2006

24 April 2006 Dearborn County Plan Commission Meeting Notes

24 April 2006 Dearborn County Plan Commission Meeting Notes

Present: Mark Mitter, Chairman, Patrick deMaynadier (arrived about 7:30 PM), Jane Ohlmansiek, Mike Hall, Jeff Hughes, and Dennis Kraus, Jr.
Absent: Tarry Feiss, Nick Held, and Robert Laws. Also Absent: Arnie McGill, Attorney
Also Present: Mark McCormack, Planning Director and Todd Listerman, Transportation Director.


Approximately 60 people were in attendance for the Zone Change request from Ag to R for single-family homes on One Mile and Sneakville Roads in Logan Township on 108 acres. In addition the 108 acres there is a little over 50 acres already zoned R in this development plan. Randy Maxwell and John Maxwell presented. Randy addressed the access points particularly noting pros and cons of each. It was noted that this development would be “much less dense” than the adjoining Picnic Woods which has 198 acres and 438 units.

17 citizens spoke in opposition and presented over 300 petitions opposed to the zone change.
Dan and Linda Johnson on Grubbs moved to their small farm 8 years ago to escape congestion on the west side of Cincinnati. They noted only parts of the adjoining properties are R. This land butts up against working farms as well. They cite this density as being out of character with the adjoining properties. They questioned the speed of development and that the adjoiners had only 11 days to prepare. They felt this was an inadequate amount of time to address the issues of the residents. Utility capacities, road issues, traffic problems, safety, and taxes were all questioned. Greenspace and buffering were needed. How can they maintain the buffers? Potential problems with drainage were big concerns. Wildlife issues as development drives nature out and nuisances increase as a result. He doesn’t want to lose the quality of life and atmosphere we came for.

Norm Andrews- Mountain Meadows and One-Mile- concerned with sprawl as he moved here 19 years ago to escape that. Concerned with schools, fire and EMS service, and police. So far we haven’t brought much crime with us- but that is changing. Tax increases for schools. Maybe a golf course would be a better use.

Paul Noble – Renck Court – ALSO ON THE SCHOOL BOARD. Noble went into some detail about the school’s current capacities. Bright Elem is at capacity. N Dearborn has 2 classrooms to use, but is at 30 per class. Staffing will be cut perhaps with the budget issues SD board is facing. Still doesn’t know where they are going to get the $2.5 mil the state cut this year. Going to be looking at possibly a couple years of insolvency where the state has to come in.
He was concerned about the entrances to the development- particularly Renck as it is a direct shortcut to Stateline and Jamison. Safety issues with children and walkers and roads with blind curves.
Mitter asked him about how the PC could get better info from school districts to help with development.
Noble disagrees with the form letter approach- noted that we can build a lot of schools- with bonds, but then we have to staff them.
Possibly get the school board and PC members together.

Linda Mitchell- Bright- If they bring a letter from the schools would you really consider it? It seems like those letters and evidence are always ignored.
Asked who pays for Grubbs rd upgrade (Applicant)
Mitchell went on to say that high density does NOT conserve farmland. We are actually using farms to the max and still consuming the land. She quoted from Nugent’s recent mailing addressing property taxes. “…property taxes affect mostly seniors, small business owners, and farmers.” Nugent spoke of income tax as replacement. She noted that if you do that it would be better to attract high income residents with larger homes and less of them. This development does not fit the character of the community.

Daughter of Linda and Dan Johnson- Cleves- works with her parents selling their organic produce. She doesn’t want to move here now that she’s seeing all the overbuilding. She also noted the drainage issues along Grubbs and asked if there were tax incentives for farmers to help with the loss of income this will cause.

Dale Schroeder – Renck Court- noted this road traffic would be in his back yard. Hookup is to Tucker’s sewer. He questioned capacity and permits for this (county has jurisdiction actually, but is letting Tucker service apparently) Wondered what will happen to the water pressure of the EXISTING residents. Noted there were NO FIRE HYDRANTS THERE! He also noted significant examples of flooding and drainage issues in the area.

Tom Perdue – Renck Court – met earlier with Jeff Hughes and Gerald Nixon. Gerald had a letter in the packet. Traffic impact study stated that significant pass thru traffic to Renck Court is not anticipated. The presentation tonight stated the opposite. He did his own “study” and noted all the people questioned would choose Renck as a significant shortcut in travel time. He then showed numerous pictures of the issues on Renck Court.
[NOTE: The are video footages of these county roads from our transportation study. This perhaps would have been good to show at this meeting to demonstrate the road issues.]He noted tree damages from missed turns and snow issues up the hill to a STOP sign.

Dave Voss- Renck Court- Gave detailed discussion citing sections of the county code section 305 j and k on grade exceeding allowed limits for the road. No sign was posted to let us know this could become a thru street. (This was before the new ordinance) He noted this impact and traffic will raise the classes of all these roads and their structures are not commensurate with that.
He wanted to know if transportation dept. had a letter and who would maintain this road?

Mark Gephart – Picnic Woods- said he bought after talking to Mrs. Alexander who said they’d never develop those 50 acres, as it was her father’s wishes.

Brian Comley (sp?)- discussed the vehicles per day generated by this development (over 3,000 trips per day). He noted that in the comp plan Miller and Harrison were the top two townships deficient in park space. He also noted traffic issues at Salt Fork and Stateline.

Terrence Evans – Cedar Ridge – moved here 15 years ago from Seattle. Noted three issues for him were schools, the overloaded sewage plant (bad aroma in summer!), creek will be fed by this sewer drainage, and the traffic overload.

Ralph Thompson – Washington Township –(Republican candidate for commissioner- VOTE IN THE PRIMARY IS MAY 2)Comp plan should be considered. This is similar to the recent Sun Valley Acres proposal. Conservation of property values- what happens to those? Has anything been done to address that? Or considered?

Janice Adams- Garden Meadows – Lives 2 doors from Grubbs Rd and home is 25 ft from centerline of road. Wonders what happens to her home when road is widened.

Donna Aspens – Schoolteacher in city and EC coach. She and bus cannot cross on Renck. DO NOT let it be thoroughfare with that blind turn.

Phil Jackson- Picnic Woods- house has been flooded 12 times! Water runoff is bad now.
Do it the best way to harm the least amount of people. Not against progress. Plan it well. Not a big proponent of how Jerry Tucker did things here.

Bill Moerlein- front yard is a lake- floods 4-5 times a year.

Mitter asked if they’d gone to Soil and Water Board.
Jackson’s Answer- same luck as you have with school board. Sewers back up- been round and round with LMH over it.

Deborah Lee – Cedar Ridge – Sewer is enlarged and no one is notified.
Works at West side Pediatrics and sees traffic issues all the time. Has a son on Fire dept.- have you looked at hydrants and fire protection?

Mark Schum – Sneakville by Grubbs – would like to see bigger homes and bigger lots. Traffic issues would be better with less density. Kids use Mt Pleasant to Sneakville to get around the school buses- RACE home! Cited Thompson article in the paper on profit motives and homes. Other houses on 1 acre close to road- what happens to septic tank when acre is cut back? [NOTE: sewer line may come be by their home and they will be hooked on.]

Public discussion ended at 8:55.

John Maxwell thanked the people for being respectful to himself and his family. Likened this to Park Place- upscale. Noted he’d been contacted by the Rencks 10 months ago and tried to do their best to get access issues ironed out and connectivity accomplished. They bought all the additional property to the west of Grubbs to widen that access. Commented that he sure wasn’t running for office.
Randy Maxwell answered Hughes question about access to Sneakville as have rough topography.

Plan commission went through the connection issues briefly and the rezoning requirements. Most members felt it fit the character. Some questioned the fiscal balance with the current school potential insolvency issue. DeMaynadier noted that the school letter didn’t say they had capacity and it didn’t say they didn’t, which was actually more telling than their usual letters. He’d be more comfortable with less density and more open space in the total plan. Hall wasn’t sure if utilities were sufficient but it would be addressed at sub’n review. Mitter thought it fit the comp plan but was concerned about the schools.

Hall motioned and Ohlmansiek 2nd for a FAVORABLE recommendation to the commissioners for a zone change and also recommended that RENCK COURT AND PICNIC WOODS ROAD would NOT be used as connections. All ayes.

Changes to the zoning ordinances were discussed and passed to go on to commissioners for approval. These included a change in parent tract language with a 2-year limitation between divisions and other setback regulations.

Mark McCormack – noted 15 applications for the enforcement officer from all over the country even. Will interview next week.
He gave out meeting info on 2 OKI meetings- one for master plan information so we can continue working on our land use element. The other was the annual OKI meeting with Mayor Mallory of Cincinnati.
He also noted letters from state and OKI still recognize original VRUC board as the legitimate authority to date. [NOTE: Elections for that come up soon.]

Meeting adjourned at 11 PM

Christine Brauer Mueller
Lawrenceburg Township

Friday, April 21, 2006

20 April 2006 Dearborn County Sewer District Meeting Notes

20 April 2006 Dearborn County Sewer District Meeting Notes

Present: Hankins, Chairman, Holland, Enzweiler, Pruss, Fehrman, Maxwell, and Dennerline
Also present: Quinn, Engineer, Baer, Health Dept., Lehner, Att’y and Messmore- liaison with Woolpert and County Adm.

Hankins declared this a working session and all members sat at the side table. It should be noted that decisions were made and votes were taken, so this meeting more properly should not be called a “working session.”

Special Request:
Tom Kent SR 1 Development- NO Show

Lou Anevski, Chateau Pomije Sewer Extension. Presentation was made by Eric Anevski (son) and Peter Ellis, Engineer. The Chateau has been on a pump and haul set up for about 4 years. The property is for sale and Anevski is purchasing it. They have two options to obtain sewers from a 2001 design. 1 is back down N.Dearborn Rd to Dover. The other is down Jacobs Road thru the old road bed to Dog Ridge to the development up there (Maxwell’s) The option to Dog Ridge is probably less challenging, though presents issues with a long line and possible septic issues with times there is no flow. Ellis thinks a 4” line would be adequate to handle the winery. They might be able to serve the church and New Alsace also. St. Leon has been ambivalent about extensions. Hankins noted they expect an agreement with St. Leon soon. Asked about septic issues in the line. Ellis acknowledged this and thought they might have to aerate the line. Winery uses 1500-3000 gal per day and they are designing for 2500 gal per day.
At this point Lehner disclosed that she had done legal work for the winery in the past.
Baer stated that IDEM gave them till the end of June to address the pump and haul or the winery would shut down.
Hankins stated the county fully intends to use ROW for sewer extensions. Sunman won’t go past Jackson Township- this is outside that area.
St. Leon needs to be contacted. The HEALTH DEPT. is in 100% support of this project. Baer also stated the line would revert to the county, once built. [NOTE: Doesn’t that mean it would have to meet cty design standards?]
Dennerline and Holland motioned and seconded to provide the necessary support for them. All ayes.
Anevski asked about Maxwell/Fischer development on Dog Ridge. Maxwell acknowledged that it was his. Monday Anevski and Ellis should meet with Baer to get the design to him and ready to send to IDEM so that they can extend the pump and haul permit until the line is built.
[NOTE: If this line is built down North Dearborn or back through Dog Ridge, does that mean that the properties within 300 ft. of the line will be forced to hook on? Will they have the $4,000 St. Leon tap fee, or is there a different county fee? If they construct a line big enough to take in New Alsace, will they extend that down Yorkridge and force those properties on also? Has Woolpert covered this area in their study to be released on May 4?]


Stewart St. and Cole Lane- Quinn talked about inserting a clause in the contract as an incentive to finish on time. May 1, Fehrman is meeting with Hastings and Turner in aurora to talk numbers and decide whose customers these residents will be. State sets the rates- so they know what those are. $101,000 is the Stewart construction cost. Tap ins are $500 (last meeting they were $1500). It was said that homeowners don’t need an easement now because they own the pumps and maintain them not the DCRSD. They are sending letters to citizens and skipping the meeting. Annexation thoughts were discussed with Dennerline repeatedly saying the DCRSD has no control over that. [NOTE: Aurora could have the no remonstrance form letter, if they wanted to, as a condition for taking the sewage.]
Hwy engineer is requiring directional boring along Stewart St. That will have to be hired out- Aurora can’t do that. Board again decided to send this out for bids (same as last meeting)
Baer will write the letter to citizens to tell them bids are going out with construction this summer.

SDRSD Membership – Board members are in the process of answering the 11 questions for SDRSD for the next meeting on May 2 with SDRSD. Hankins said there is general agreement to approve our request for membership plus escrowing funds for buildout. Jacobsen of SDRSD Board informed them that the repair on the sludge pipe break was fixed when it was questioned.
Funding requirements for SDRSD and St. Leon- were over $4M and $1.5-2.5M respectively.
Hankins said Council set aside money last time in the budget for this. On Apr 28th they will turn in their formal request for the money to be considered at Council’s May 23 meeting. They also need Aurora by-pass pipe funds. Hankins noted they needed to be specifically general. Fehrman and Dennerline motioned and 2nded for the paperwork authorizing the money to be signed by Hankins who would work with Lehner to determine the amounts to request and funds to request them from. All approved.

Dennerline said he hoped Sodrel’s office comes through with money. Messmore said all reps received the same map and letter with our requests.

Messmore said David Terrill of the Office of Rural Affairs is meeting here May 1 to try and build a model from what we are trying to accomplish.

Lehner, Messmore, Hankins, and Woolpert going to meet June 14 with Daniel’s chief of staff to see if they can open a few doors for us.

Hankins wants DCRSD board to lobby council members to get the funding.

Messmore said Woolpert would be at the May 4th meeting to give a formal update on their results so far.

Claims paid included $904 liability ins. With Seitz and there is $2000 bonding due in June. Lehner was paid for her Stewart St and Cole Lane work.

Baer asked what to do with individuals who need sewers but are in county territory. Can they attach to other providers? He was told to bring them individually to DCRSD to make their requests. Big discussion on whether they’d be mains or lateral extensions. State would be involved with main extensions. They were also concerned about getting too many little lines all over the place.

Teresa Brady (sp?) taken over at rural development- says we do not meet income level requirements for the grant. They need to get something from Susan Craig to send to her. Lehner to draft letter to GRW to get info. GRW was supposed to get this done on their original contract. Comments about suing GRW…

Letter from John Watson was the attorney from Sunman representing Classic Properties on Blossom Hill. (He called it SR 1 but meant Stateline Road) CTA overlaps with VRUC. Watson believes both have the right to sewer it. Lehner said Watson thinks we are set up with a CTA- we are a “different animal” as a regional sewer district. VRUC’s CTA has not been revoked yet. So we have no obligation to provide service. If that CTA is revoked, the commissioners can acquire it by condemnation or purchase. If the health dept. can prove serious problems, they can also condemn.
Board said Parvin Price (VRUC att’y in INDY) would sue us. Messmore said VRUC had a new attorney. (Ewbank) Answer was- no they have TWO attorneys!

Per Steve Lampert- Greendale- Tom Kent came to the city to see about sewer access. We’ll need a contract with Greendale for transmitting sewage. County has to give a collection letter, Greendale has to give a transport letter, and SDRSD has to give a capacity letter. Lehner to draft DCRSD letter. Holland and Dennerline motioned and 2nded to provide a conditional letter. Kent to lay a mile of line and county will charge a “head tax.” They anticipate 100-150 in development.

Hankins, Quinn, and Fehrman looked at sewer flows around Aurora. Think they understand the patterns. They think they may be able to help County and Aurora at the same time. Discussion of line sizes, siphons, Conwell St, Trestor Hill, Moore Street, and Quinn to design and have some hydraulics engineers double check to see if feasible. Have to be careful not to flood the houses along it…
Fehrman said Aurora is fearful of the fines IDEM is threatening. GRW’s proposals do not help the county- they are strictly for Aurora (who hired them!)
Maxwell was concerned with 2 engineers working on the same things.
Quinn to do the feasibility for $16,000.

Maxwell asked about High Ridge Estates and where the sewage was going. [NOTE: FINALLY, someone sees the PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE!] He was told it’s going over the hill into Hogan Creek and has been for about 20 years!
Hrezo Engineering talked to Hankins about using temporary package plants. [NOTE: An added expense- better to talk to Dillsboro- they are closer.]

Meeting adjourned 9 PM
Christine Brauer Mueller
Lawrenceburg Township

18 April 2006 US 50 Community Advisory Committee Meeting Notes

These notes were sent to CAC members today regarding our meeting on Tuesday afternoon. The PUBLIC is invited to attend a meeting on April 25 at L-BG High School from 6-8 PM. Please let your friends and neighbors know about this as well. There is info in the Thurs. Register also.
Christine Brauer Mueller
Lawrenceburg Township

FROM: Scott Roush, Strand Associates, Inc.
DATE: April 18, 2006
RE: INDOT US 50 Corridor Planning Study and Environmental Assessment

This date a meeting was held at the Adult Learning Center, 311 West Tate Street, Lawrenceburg, Indiana from 3:00 – 5:00 with the Community Advisory Committee (CAC) to discuss the Purpose and Need of the project. This was the first of three meetings that are required by Indiana’s Streamlined EIS Procedures.

A list of those attending is attached.

The meeting began with a Power Point presentation by Scott Roush (see attached) discussing the results of the Existing Conditions Report and the Purpose and Need statement. The meeting then broke into four small groups with the task of identifying additional issues that affected the operation of US 50. Copies of the draft Existing Conditions Report and the draft Purpose and Need documents were available at each table as well as a blank aerial photograph of the project corridor. Each group then reported a summary of their discussion. Following is a summary of those comments.

· It was suggested that the study should not terminate at I-275. It was suggested that the study be extended to the State Line due to the amount of anticipated development. It was also suggested that SR 1 also be included in this study. SR 1 via Bellview Avenue has a very poor cross section with significant truck traffic. The existing SR 1 bridge over the railroad tracks is a bottleneck.

· The segment of US 50 between Aurora and Wilson Creek Road/Wal Mart entrance should receive additional analysis regarding traffic operations. Specifically, the George Street, SR 148 (Sunnyside Avenue), Wilson Creek Road and Wal Mart entrance (Sycamore Estates) intersections should receive intersection level analysis rather than be included as part of a larger corridor. Additional safety and deficiencies analysis should occur through this segment.

· Chris McHenry should be contacted regarding locations of specific historic structures. Specific structures mentioned were Flowers By Vicki structure and a church in Lawrenceburg.

· Primary issues are congestion on US 50, Bellview Avenue/SR 1 truck traffic and bottlenecks at SR 48 and at Wal Mart.

· There are no good bypass solutions. The River to the south and steep hills to the north make US 50 the only good corridor for improvement.

· Corridor needs access management. Need to limit access at controlled intersections, service roads or combined accesses for 4-5 stores.

· County redevelopment should be included in meetings.

· Portions of US 50 are designated as a National Scenic Byway

· Any proposed improvements should recognize the historic value of individual structures and districts along the study corridor.

· Make sure that the SR 48 realignment is included in project planning.

· In Dillsboro there is poor access to the Solid Waste Management District, the flashing lights that serve Dillsboro and at the casket company during shift changes. Sight distance is also a problem.

· As sewer access is provided along US 50 in the Dillsboro area there will be more access points as economic development occurs. Setbacks should be adequate so that sight distance is not affected.

· There is a cemetery behind Steak & Shake and the overpass in Greendale.

· Hillside development is causing drainage problems due to under sized culverts and erosion

· The Tanners Creek bridge and the floodplain are critical features

· Traffic is currently using Greendale via Ridge Road as a cut through to avoid US 50. This is glutting up existing City streets. Elderly and youth are afraid to drive on US 50.

· Need left and right turn lanes at new developments such as theatre and at Kroger.

Specific Improvement Suggestions

· Turning lane/capacity improvements should be considered at Wilson Creek Road, SR 148 (Sunnyside Road), George Street, and Blair Road in the Aurora area. Add additional capacity from SR 148 to George Street and from Wilson Creek Road to Wal Mart. Also look at new access to Wal Mart from Wilson Creek Road

· The “suicide lane” should be removed and replaced with a median.

· A new bridge over Tanners Creek is needed now. It can’t wait.

· Need computer controlled traffic lights that can adjust signal times based on conditions.

· Cooperate with Ohio to place a new interchange at I-275 and Stephens to take load off of I-275 at SR 1.

Attendance Report

CAC Members
Bill Black, Jr., Dearborn County Emergency Management
Donnie Hastings, Mayor of Aurora
Jennifer Hughes, Dearborn County Soil & Water Conservation District
Jeff Hughes, Dearborn County District 1
LaVerne Kolb, Farm Bureau Inc.
Steven Lampert, City of Greendale
Mark McCormack, Dearborn County Planning & Zoning
Bryan Messmore, Dearborn County
Chris Mueller, County Metro Plan Board
Phil Piche, Grace Church of the Valley
John Rahe, Main Street Aurora
Peter Resnick, Dearborn County Hospital
Michael Rozow, Dearborn County Chamber
Bob Sauerbrey, Miller Township-Citizen
Jay Senitza, Manchester Township

INDOT Representatives
Steve Smith
Mary Jackman
Jim Ude

Larry Heil

Erin Peterson, M.E. Companies

Wednesday, April 19, 2006

18 April 2006 Dearborn County Commissioner Meeting Notes

18 April 2006 Dearborn County Commissioner Meeting Notes

Present: Benning, President, Hughes, and Fox
Also present: Pickens, Auditor, Ewbank, Attorney, and Messmore, Administrator.

Marilyn Bower- Dearborn Highland Arts Council- was granted permission to go to Council on May 23 to request funding for the Gateway for the Arts.

Ms Howard of Dutch Hollow Road and Tim Barrott gave an update on their road issues citing the needs of the firehouse, school bus safety, and mail delivery along the narrow roadway. The requested a stripe down the middle of the road. [NOTE: There are issues with striping roads that do not have two full lanes.] They thanked Listerman for getting some of their needs addressed with signs and ditching. Listerman answered Fox’s question on maintenance issues stating that he was setting up a schedule of sequential road counts over the years so that heir could address road maintenance in order of priority. One of the criteria is vehicular traffic volume.

Mary Meleschi for an “unresolved problem” did not show.

Ms Williams, a Bright resident discussed her pond problem, which she attributes to Tucker development. Apparently the runoff from gutters and roadways is ending up dragging mud and debris into her pond in the Carr, Meyer, Brookstone Way area. She has been working with Jennifer Hughes at Soil and Water and had a large packet of materials regarding violations of Rule 5. Tucker has placed large round hay bales as an attempt to stem the flow- she complained that they filled her pond with hay. They can’t get across their dam at times to get to their home now. Previous commissioners (Shell and Dole) told her it was a civil issue and she needed to sue Tucker. She praised current commissioner Hughes for working hard to help her resolve the problem. She went on to state that she figured Benning wouldn’t help because she’s got a campaign sign on Tucker’s property. She then showed them a picture of the sign. Benning apologized – saying she was sorry the sign bothered her. She also stated that she had a man putting signs up for her and he was selecting the sites. Listerman has replaced two pipes on Meyer road- this apparently is not helping. Ms Williams is dealing with Randy Braun- in Indy. Pickens took her number and he will place calls to see if they can expedite a solution.

Old Business: Todd Listerman gave a report showing no records clear back to the 1800s that show any county road in the area of Railroad in Moore’s Hill. They used surveys, deeds, and aerials. They see the remnants of an old road that went from Moores’s Hill down S Adams to the depot, but there are no maintenance records of any county road where Railroad Lane is. As it is currently 12 ft wide gravel- the county cannot take it in until it would be brought to county specs- 20 ft gravel. Ewbank stated- the question was whether or not it was a county road. The answer is no- so the county will not maintain it.

Claims and minutes were signed.

Hughes asked Bill Black to reiterate to everyone how important it was for NIMS training to be completed. Black tied it to federal funding for the schools as well.

Ewbank noted there were 2 more claims filed against the county and they had resolved another one and settled one with the Clerk’s office.

Benning announced that the commissioners had attended the US 50 Community Advisory Meeting that afternoon and that the public meeting on US 50 for the Corridor Study will be April 25th at LHS from 6-8. She noted the county was 10th fastest growing in the state.

Meeting adjourned 7 PM

Christine Brauer Mueller
Lawrenceburg Township

Tuesday, April 18, 2006

Amendment to Lusby Campaign Form

Lusby Campaign Form Amendment

Dave Lusby- Sheriff is filing an amendment to his campaign form this week showing two major contributions:
$1000 Walton Franks
$1000 Harry Tritschler

Campaign Finance Reports as of 17 April 2006

Campaign Finance Reports filed by 17 April 2006

Dave Lusby- Sheriff
$ 5538 itemized
$3972 unitemized
Total $9510
Spent: $7378.77

Itemized contributors:
500 James Adams
500 Robert and Mary Ewbank
200 Phil VanNatter
100 Buford Lamkin
100 Frank Linkmeyer
100 Dennis Kinnett
100 Charlie Blankenship
100 William Backman, Jr.
200 Tim Pomeroy
100 Thomas Lane
200 Dave Fogle
1000 (?) Walton Franks
100 Deborah Waldon
200 Vytautas Bielauskas
390 (inkind) After Hours Embroidery
648 (in kind) Robert Hastings (billboard)
1000 Republican County Committee
2000 Loan from David Lusby

Linda Jordan Estes-Sheriff
Itemized $5834
Unitemized 0
Spent: $5252.77

Itemized contributors:
80 Bijorn Nargess
100 Kenny and Angie McAllister
25 Robert and Janice Ziegler
25 Ron and Terry Gable
25 Robert and Patricia Sypniewski
20 Leroy and Betty Lobenstein
50 Robert and Bonnie Starks
25 William and Dale Bates
50 Leroy and Carol Hastings
25 David and Gloria Weber
75 George and Becky Lortz
25 Franklin and Christine Brandt
25 Don and Shirley Wittekind
500 Virginia Boyer
200 Jim and Linda Estes
100 Robert and Gail Hamilton
100 William and Sarita Blantz
50 Kim and Chad Barrows
200 Tim Pomeroy
165 Paul and Ruby Ballard
20 Tom and Rose Tillman
25 JH Wheeler
25 James and Helen Dixon
50 Roy and Mary Ann Colweck
20 No name- Cash
150 Guenter Grote
100 Jeff Steinmetz
100 Steve and Karen Miller
100 James and Myra Clary
100 Teresa Cox
200 Reggie Tarantino
0.50 UCB (interest)
19.36 McPhersons
20 Jim and Gayle Lightner
100 No name- Greentree Road
20 John Getzendanner
50 Dave Patterson
35 Steve Milbourn
25 Robert Cameron
35 Lawrence Rohling
100 TOMAR properties, LLC
200 All Brite Blooms
100 Gutzwiller Construction
100 Manchester Market
25 Sans Tans
100 Eagle Freight Systems
100 E-Town Landfill
25 D&J Hauling

Craig Lysne- Council
Itemized $258
Spent $258

185 Kim Lysne
75 JEM Investments, LLC

Liz Morris- Council
Itemized $1500
Spent $ 1475.55

Itemized contributors:
1500 Elizabeth Morris

The following 4 have $0 to date.
Dan Lansing- Council
Sally Blankenship- Judge
Gary Hensley- Assessor
Aaron Negangard- Prosecutor

Vera Benning- Commissioner D-3Contributions:
Itemized $1500
Unitemized $746
Total $ 2246
Spent: $1232.48

Itemized contributors:
500 Joseph Mrak (consultant) Indianapolis
1000 Republican County Committee

Ralph Thompson- Commissioner D-3Contributions:
Itemized $1200
Unitemized $1461
Total $2661
Spent $0

Itemized contributors:
1000 Alan S. Freemond, Sr.
200 Helen and Charles Kremer

Robert Bischoff- State representativeContributions:
On hand- $50,061.33
Itemized $3541.96
Unitemized $123.05
Total: $53726.34
Spent: $3068.85

Bill Ullrich- State Representative
Itemized $9680.14
Unitemized $1520
Total $ 11,200.14
Spent: $9423.29

Re-Elect Sheriff David Lusby


A Proven Leader As Dearborn County Sheriff
Experienced, Qualified, Dedicated


17 Years Law Enforcement Experience

Sheriff of Dearborn County since 2003
Homicide Investigations
Deputy Sheriff
Indiana Law Enforcement Academy Graduate
Indiana Police Chief's Executive Training

Law Enforcement Training

Indiana Law Enforcement Academy Graduate
Indiana Police Chief's Executive Training
Former ILEA Instructor
Indiana Sheriff School
Various other Law Enforcement Training


Increased Officer Patrols
Formed a Drug Investigations Unit when first elected
Worked to relocate dispatch back to the Sheriff's Office (Saving the County Thousands of Tax Dollars)
Installed Computer's in cars to increase patrol time and improve public safety.
Formation of major Crimes Investigation Units.
Sheriff Department WEBSITE, Information about the Sheriff Dept, Jail, Community, and other Information.


Member Board of Directors for Indiana Sheriff's Association
Kiwanis Club Member
Soccer Coach
Baseball Coach
Civic Club Member

Sheriff David Lusby cares about ...

The future of Dearborn County
Making our neighborhoods a safe place for our Kids to grow up.

The continued investigation and prosecution of criminals that threaten our neighborhoods and families.

David Lusby is ...

Someone concerned about you.
Involved in our community.
A dad, a husband, a coach, and YOUR SHERIFF
Vote on May 2nd !
Thank You for your Support!

Submitted by Barb Lee

Monday, April 17, 2006

Just for the record...

Notice to all citizens and candidates.
Postings on this site are delivered completely free of charge as a service to the public.
No payments have been offered or accepted.

Republican Candidate for DEARBORN COUNTY SHERIFF


Emphasis on Drug Enforcement
More community oriented policing
Re-focusing law enforcement in the troubled and growing areas of the county.
I will make myself available to all citizens of this county.


Law Enforcement since 1995


Chief Deputy of Hidden Valley Lake
Member of the Indiana Sheriffs’ Association
A licensed Private Detective in the State of Indiana
Certified School Resource Officer
A liaison for the Early Warning Terrorism Group
Graduate from the 17 week Reserve Academy
Certified to carry a Taser
Certified in ASP Baton
Certified in Drug Field Testing
Certified in Radar

Training in SIDS, Blood Born Pathogens, Hazardous Materials, Domestic Violence, Fire Arms Qualifications, Defensive Tactics, Crime Scenes, Crash Investigation, Culture Diversity, Police Canine , Rape Investigation , Ethics in Law Enforcement, Community Policing, Criminal Investigation, Aircraft Disaster, US Coast Guard Auxiliary Seamanship, Multi-jurisdictional Counter Drug Task Force, Stop Stick Deployment, Basic Court Procedure, First Responder to a Fire, Truck / Bus Crash Reports, Standard Field Sobriety Testing, Basic Criminal Law, Meth Lab Detection and Investigations, Mental Health, Law Enforcement Computer, Traffic Stop, Criminal Justice Standard, Child/Elder Abuse, Dealing with Juveniles, Interview and Interrogation, E.V.O.C. (Emergency Vehicle Optical Course), Field Training Officer, Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, School Bullying, Gang Violence.
Worked many undercover drug cases.

Paid for by the committee to elect Linda Jordan Estes for Dearborn County Sheriff
Information taken from the original flier
No payment made for this posting

Saturday, April 15, 2006

Bright Web Site Opposes Zone Change

For information on the proposed zone change coming before the Plan Commission on April 24 at 7 PM a site was set up by opposing Bright residents at:

Friday, April 14, 2006

Meet the Candidates Night!!!!!

Sue Weldon of the Manchester Civic Association has organized a Meet the
Candidates night. The details are provided below. Please inform your
friends and family, and encourage them to attend this meeting. Make your
voice heard!

*Important Notice:* The Manchester Civic Association has organized a
"Meet the Candidates" night for Thursday, April 27th at 7:30pm
at the Manchester firehouse near "the store" on SR 48 in Manchester.
This is an opportunity to meet Vera Benning, the sitting District 3 County
Commissioner and her opponent for the May 2 primary, Ralph Thompson.
Please plan on attending this meeting to voice your concerns to the candidates.
The primary election is open to all voters in the county. Even
though commissioners run in a district, ALL voters vote for them.

Monday, April 10, 2006

Former Commissioner John Kyle

Former District 2 Commissioner John R. Kyle, age 78, passed away. He was preceded in death by wife, Frieda, and is survived by 2 sons, Warren and John, and 2 daughters, Greta Christiansen and Ava Reece (sp?).
Rullman Hunger Denney in Aurora is in charge of arrangements with visitation on Thursday and services are on Friday at Ludlow Hill Baptist Church.
see local newspaper for times

Friday, April 07, 2006

6 April 2006 DCRSD Meeting Notes

6 April 2006 Dearborn County Sewer District Meeting Notes

Present: Hankins, Chairman, Holland, Enzweiler, Pruss, Fehrman, Maxwell, and Dennerline (Maxwell returned after missing 3 previous meetings- it takes 4 in a row to be removed from the board)
Also present: Quinn, Engineer, Baer, Health Dept., and Lehner, Att’y.
Absent: Messmore- liaison with Woolpert and County Adm.
In attendance: Jim West, DCEDI, Jerry Jacobsen, SDRSD, Vera Benning, and 3 citizens.

Greendale was not present but was listed on the agenda as a special request for DCRSD service areas.

Old Business:
Most of this was essentially a rehash of discussion from previous meetings. In summary, Cole Lane and Stewart Street WILL be sent out for bid in a couple weeks and they plan to meet with residents, but have no firm numbers for costs. Board is essentially trusting that Aurora will bill similar to the way they do all outside city billings at between 2.5-3 times the water bill.
Costs looked to be averaging $59.73/mo using $20,000 out of the board acc’t to offset. There were increases in pipe costs and a slight decrease in grinder costs. Cost to connect to Aurora was thought to be $1500 per house. Enzweiler spoke out about not wanting to go to any meetings deceiving people about costs- he wanted numbers and a signed contract with Aurora.
Lehner noted that Aurora has applied for a 6-month extension on Phase 1 improvements and also thought a contract was a good idea. Dennerline and Hankins figure that Aurora will treat them just like a sub’n request. Fehrman is to go to Turner’s office and get numbers. No grants coming- they will need to go to L-Bg Bond bank for operational funds. Lehner noted the bid contracts have to extend bid prices for more than 30 days.

Membership in DCRSD still not settled though the price estimate is $4.4M for a 1.5M gallon buildout allowing 1 M gal per day with $400,000 going to the other members of SDRSD. Hankins noted that one member had some resistance but that seemed to be fading. SDRSD meets next Tues at 10 AM [NOTE: Where is the $4.4M coming from to buy in?]

Prior to meeting, Messmore told Hankins they expect to hear soon (because it’s an election year) on their earmarking requests to see about funds for interceptors.

They will need Hastings to sign again for another variance per Dennerline- on HighRidge Estates request. Lehner has prepared the variance petitions for High Ridge estates and the houses between them and Cole Lane.

Lehner prepared amendment to Quinn’s contract reflecting his change to a limited liability co. (Quinn Engineering, LLC), which was Okd.
Quinn is taking a serious look at and designing an interceptor line for Aurora area.
Enzweiler asked if DCRSD had a tax ID #- Baer said yes.
Holland questioned part of Lehner’s bill regarding review for a complaint filed on the engineering licensure of Quinn. Lehner assured him that Quinn was licensed. Complaint was filed in 2006 and he was IN licensed then.

Board thought they could get Ameritek to help with Aurora interceptor (600,000 gals on a 6 “line) instead of going to Dillsboro- as Dillsboro fees would be higher. [NOTE: It could help LOWER Dillsboro fees if there were more users and volume. Has anyone calculated that effect?]

Claims were paid – mentioning Woolpert consulting and a “big one” for Lehner.

NEW Business:
Hankins brought up the new development on One Mile Road (Maxwell’s zoning request going before PC the end of April- Maxwell did NOT participate in this discussion during the meeting.) Hankins said it was in the CTA of LMH and borders property of their wastewater treatment plant. Per the rules at IDEM etc. “we trump any CTA.” Some people disagree with that. We should let them cover this as we have no means of doing it anyway. We need no vote on this.

[Note: Where does Hankins get off thinking that HE decides this with no vote of the board? Does DCRSD decide when they will apply the rules and when they won’t? And why take in all areas NOT CURRENTLY SERVED by sewers when you have no means of addressing their issues? This just doesn’t pass the smell test – pun intended.]
[NOTE: It would be interesting to draw the CTA’s for all the districts. My guess is that very little of the county would fall outside those lines. So is DCRSD going to use CTA or currently served as their benchmark?]

DCRSD wants office and space. Benning told them Messmore was working on getting the I&M Bldg renovated to house Health Dept. and they could go with them. [NOTE: Per the original plan discussion at Commissioner's meeting- that would be 1,000 sq ft. for each of 4 depts. (Health, Building, Planning, and Highway) – does Benning mean for the DCRSD office to take part of Health Dept’s 1,000 sq. ft.?]
Council meets in May and any additionals they request have to be to them by April 28th for that meeting per Baer.

Meeting adjourned at 8 PM

Christine Brauer Mueller
Lawrenceburg Township

Wednesday, April 05, 2006

Major Moves Proceeds for County Roads

Dearborn County’s Share of Major Moves Proceeds

The county, cities and towns will receive an equal amount for 2 years only.

Dearborn Annual 414,454.84 Total for 2 years 828,709.67
Aurora Annual 27,325.06 Total for 2 years 54,650.11
Dillsboro Annual 9,896.29 Total for 2 years 19,792.58
Greendale Annual 29,606.16 Total for 2 years 59,212.33
Lawrenceburg Annual 32,286.98 Total for 2 years 64,573.97
Moores Hill Annual 4,376.14 Total for 2 years 8,753.29
St. Leon Annual 3,156.34 Total for 2 years 6,312.67
W. Harrison Annual 1,957.20 Total for 2 years 3,914.41

Distributions are based on current MVH formula
Info received at Purdue Road School

All Three TIF Districts Approved Leaving Out Town of St. Leon Property

5 April 2006 Dearborn County Redevelopment Commission Meeting Notes

Present: Rahe, Chairman, West, Maxwell, and Hughes.
Absent: Benning
Also present: Messmore, County Adm, McCormack, Planning Director, Rozow, Chamber of Commerce, and Butler, Attorney.

Rick Hall of Barnes and Thornburgh presented the intro and noted this was the final step in establishing the TIF districts.
Jim Higgins, CPA- presented the impact assessment that was sent 10 days certified mail, prior to the hearing to each taxing entity. He noted there were 2 schedules on the back of each. One is a list of all the parcels in the district and the assessed values of each. Schedule B walked them thru 4 scenarios of impact on the taxing entities. Assuming a $1M improvement in a district it could capture $23,490 of taxes. If they elect to capture only 50% they would yield $11,745 for that $1 M investment. If they don’t capture it at all that money gets spread to each entity at 1/3 cent per $100 assessed value for the $1M improvement.

Maxwell asked about deciding who gets the portion if they don’t elect to capture it all. The answer was that they cannot selectively decide who benefits. (for example the schools vs. some other tax recipients)

It was noted that they shouldn’t bounce around with capturing percentages as it is a difficult process for eth taxing entities and this would generate more work.
They can capture 100% in the beginning and taper off as the taxes are not needed for infrastructure as time goes on.

West asked about SE IND beverage- he thought they should have capturable income in 2006. Higgins said it wasn’t in the data he analyzed. West wanted that on the record.

The only public comment was from Terry Boedekker of St. Leon. He wanted to be sure the TIF was not taking in land in St. Leon itself now.

The Redevelopment proposals redrew the lines to exclude St. Leon property in the final vote as St. Leon has it’s own Redevelopment Commission now.

All three districts were unanimously approved noting that St. Leon property was eliminated.

Meeting adjourned at 10:25 AM

Christine Brauer Mueller
Lawrenceburg Township

4 April 2006 Dearborn County Commissioner Meeting Notes

4 April 2006 Dearborn County Commissioner Meeting Notes

Present: Benning, President, Hughes, and Fox
Also present: Pickens, Auditor, Ewbank, Attorney, and Messmore, Administrator.

1. Margaret Minzner GIS Coordinator presented the Earth Data International contract for signature. Money is already available in account for this. They will provide 2 ft instead of 4 ft contours. Commissioners voted to approve.

2. Brad Carmen and fiancée Barb requested that the county maintain Railroad Lane in Sparta Township as it always had been. Listerman stated that county files show it was never on road inventory. They changed the sign from green to brown to reflect this status as a private lane. Issues with RR ROW and potentially inaccessible lot at the end will be researched. Carmen willing to give ROW to widen to county specs for a gravel road. House existed since 1884. Tabled until research is completed.

3. Hrezo Engineering presented YES Home for final approval on this final phase of work. Commissioners signed it.

4. Woodfill not present for Rump Road. (This was to be heard at 2nd meeting in April per his request at March meeting)

5. Standard EMS Contract with Dillsboro signed.

6. Messmore noted that Bright Meadows Park would be the site for Earth Day April 22.
OKI Contract was already signed off last meeting- OKI will be here June 6th to explain their role in the county as MPO also.
There were no irregularities in files regarding the discharged employee at Hwy Dept. Commissioners voted to accept Listerman’s recommendation to discharge the employee.

7. Ewbank reported that the parking ordinance would be published for 1 month before being effective. The building Ordinance update has not been rejected in INDY so he assumes it will pass thru.

8. There has been a civil rights lawsuit filed in federal court in Ohio naming the sheriff, the jail, various rangers, and HVL. The compliant alleges the person should not have been arrested in the first place. Ewbank noted that the sheriff was only named nominally.

9. Hughes wants GIS to be its own dept. and the commissioners named him to work with Mitter and Council to get it set up. Pickens warned then to be certain to get a job description set up properly to cover payroll issues. GIS is to be a stand-alone dept. under the commissioners.

Meeting adjourned at 6:40 PM

Christine Brauer Mueller
Lawrenceburg Township